Types of Packaging

Types of Packaging

There are two types of packaging for fruit and vegetables:

Outer packaging

Outer packaging which is the unit in which the products are handled. Used as a transport unit, the packaging should protect the commodities from rough handling and at the same time be able to withstand a stacking height of up to 2.5 m. The packaging should not collapse due to high humidity, which is occasionally the case during transport.

The outer packaging should also allow adequate airflow so those commodities in the inner packaging will maintain the desired temperature. Ventilation holes are usually placed in the sides of the boxes, but as airflow is coming from beneath it is more effective if holes are positioned in top and bottom in away that keeps air passage free.

In the retail trade outer package will often be used for commodity display purposes. The most utilized forms of outer packaging are cartons with various types of coatings that can withstand high humidity, sacks and boxes made of wood, fiberboard, plastic or other similar.

Inner packaging

Packaging of products in a sales package has disadvantages well as advantage.

Advantage

Disadvantage

Protects against rough handling

and contamination

Costs

Prevents dehydration

Impedes chilling

Retards aging

Prevents trimming

Facilitates sales distribution

Danger of suffocation

(I) Outer Packaging

The function of packaging

A significant percentage of produce buyer and consumer complaints may be traced to container failure because of poor design or inappropriate selection and use. A properly designed produce container should contain, protect, and identify the produce, satisfying everyone from grower to consumer.

1) Containment: The container must enclose the produce in convenient units for handling and distribution. The produce should fit well inside the container, with little wasted space. Packages of produce commonly handled by hand are usually limited to 22.5 kg or 50 pounds. Bulk packages moved by forklifts may weigh as much as 540 kg or 1200 pounds.

2) Protection: This is regarded as the primary function of the package, to protect its contents from outside environmental effects, be they water, moisture vapor, gases, odors, microorganisms, dust, shocks, vibration, compressive forces, etc., and protect the environment from the product.

3) Identification or Communication: The package must identify and provide useful information about produce. It may be old, but it is still true; package function as a “silent salesman. ” The ability of the consumers to instantly recognize products through distinctive branding and labeling enables supermarkets to function on a self service basis, such as the produce name, brand, size, grade, variety, net weight, count, grower, shipper, and country of origin. Without this communication function, the weekly shopping expedition to the supermarket would become a lengthy, frustrating nightmare as consumers attempted to make purchasing decisions without the Nemours clues provided by the graphics and distinctive shapes of the packaging.

Description: ParcodOther communication functions of the package are equally important today the widespread use of modern scanning equipment at retail checkouts relies on all packaging that displaying an UPC (Universal Product Code).

UPC is also frequently used in warehouses and distribution centers.                                                                                              

       

 Source North Carolina cooperative Extension Service

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Package Environments

The packaging has to perform its functions in three different environments. Failure to consider all three environments during package development will result in poorly designed packages, increased costs, consumer complaints and even avoidance or rejection of the product by the consumer.

A) Physical Environment: This is the environment in which physical damage can be caused to the product. It includes shocks from drops, falls and bumps; damage from vibration arising from transportation modes including road, rail, sea and air; and compression and crushing damage arising from stacking in warehouses and during transportation or in the packinghouses.

B) Ambient Environment: This is the environment, which surrounds the package. Damage to the product can be caused as a result of gases, water and water vapor, and the effect of heat and cold.

C) Human Environment: This is the environment in which the package interacts with people, and designing packages for this environment requires a knowledge of the vision and strength capabilities and limitations of the human, as well as legislative and regulatory requirements. Since one of the functions of the package is to communicate, it is important that the message is received clearly by the consumers. In addition, the package must contain information required by law such as nutritional content and net weight.

N.B: A knowledge of the function of packaging and the environments where it has to perform will lead to the optimization of package design and the development of real, cost-effective packaging

Select good package

Because almost all produce packages are palletized, produce containers should have sufficient stacking strength to resist crushing in a low temperature, high humidity environment. Although the cost of packaging materials has escalated sharply in recent years, poor quality, lightweight containers that are easily damaged by handling or moisture are no longer tolerated by packers or buyers.

Produce destined for export markets requires that containers to be extra sturdy. Air freighted produce may require special packing, package sizes, and insulation. Consequently the sea freighted produce will require additional specification from the packaging such as waxed, lower moisture absorption, more stacking strength to resist crushing in a low temperature and high humidity during the transit times.

Damage resulting from poor environmental control handling and transit in one of the leading causes of rejected produce and low buyer and consumer satisfaction. Each fresh fruit and vegetable commodity has its own requirements for temperature, humidity, and environmental gas composition.

Produce containers should be produce friendly, helping to maintain an optimum environment for the longest shelf life.

 Photo Source:

Packaging points

  1. Recyclability / Biodegradability:
  2. Variety
  3. Boost Sales appeal
  4. Maintain Shelf life

Main types of packaging papers

Basic martial

Source

Weight range Kg/1000 sq. m

Tensile strength Kg/m

Properties and uses

Kraft Papers

Sulfate pulp from softwoods

70-300

250-1150

Heavy-duty paper beached natural or colored; may be wet-strengthened or made water-repellent. Used for pages, multiwall sacks and liners from corrugated board. Bleached varieties are used for food packaging where strength required.

Sulfite papers

Usually bleached generally made from mixture of softwood and hardwood.

35-300

Very variable

Clean bright paper of excellent printing nature and used for smaller bags, pouches, envelopes, waxed papers, and labels and for oil laminating, etc.

Greaseproof papers

From heavily beaten pulp

70-150

180-450

Grease-resistance for baked goods fatty foods

Glassine papers

Similar to grease-proof but super-calendered

40-150

140-535

Oil-and grease-resistance used as an odor barrier for lining bags, boxes, etc. and for greasy foods.

Vegetable parchment

Treatment of unisized- paper with concentrated sulfuric acid

12-75

215-1450

Non-toxic, high wet strength, grease-and oil-resistance for wet and greasy food.

Tissue papers

Lightweight paper from most pulps

20-50

low

Lightweight, soft wrapping paper.


Paper products

Papers is generally termed board when its substances exceed 250 gsm, except in the United Kingdom where the dividing lines is arbitrarily taken as 220gsm. A variety of paperboards are manufactured. The simplest types are single-ply thick papers made from 100% bleached chemical wood pulp; they are used in food packaging where purity and clean appearance is required together with a degree of strength.

Description: yasser2

Kraft Papers Rolls

      

A) Paper Pages: A variety of papers are used in the manufacture of paper pages depending on the end use of the pages. The bags can differ in shape, style and the number of plies’ e.g. single, double, and multiwall.

B) Folding cartons: Folding cartons are containers made from sheets of paperboard which have been cut and scored for bending into desired shapes; they are delivered in a collapsed state for erection at the packaging point.

C) Corrugated and solid paperboard

The first use of corrugated material for packaging purposes was the subject of a patent granted to an American named Albert Jones in 1871.The widespread manufacture of corrugated paperboard and boxes began near the end of 19th century. Today has reached a high level of sophisticated in all developed countries.

Solid fiberboard cases were first produced in the United State about 1902.

  • Corrugated Fiberboard

Description: fiberwall (Often mistakenly called cardboard or pasteboard) is manufactured in many different styles and weight. Most corrugated fiberboard is made from three or more layers of paperboard sandwiched between two additionally layers of fiberboard, manufactured by the Kraft proceed. To be considered paperboard, the paper must be thicker than 0.008 inches. Fiberboard boxes must be made of singlewall, doublewall or triplewall corrugated fiberboard having proper bending qualities, the facing being firmly glued to the corrugated medium at all points of contact and the outer facing having water resistance.

The corrugated medium in all corrugated fiberboard’s manufactured to minimum burst test, minimum puncture test requirements, or edge crush requirements. Flutes may be A, B, C or E size with corrugations running in preferred directions.

Photo Source: North Carolina cooperative Extension Service

Standard flute sizes used in corrugated board

Type of flute

Height of flute (CM)

Number of flutes (m)

A

0.470

110

B

0.097

154

C

0.142

128

E

0.045

315

N.B: Tests have shown that cartons of fully recycled pulp have about 75% of the stacking strength of the virgin fiber containers. The use of recycled fibers will inevitably lead to the use of thicker walled containers.

Single Face: The structure formed by one corrugated member glued to one flat- facing.

Singlewall: The structure formed by one corrugated inner member glued between two flat facing.

Doublewall: The structure formed by three flat facings and two intermediate corrugated members.

Tripwall: The structure formed by four flat facings and three intermediate corrugated members.

·Solid Fiberboard: Fiberboard boxes must be made of three or more plies of solid fiberboard having proper bending qualities, all plies being firmly glued together and outer ply being water resistance.

Boxes may be made of two-ply solid fiberboard when maximum weight of box and contents does not exceed 40 pound (about 18.0 kg).

Boxes must comply with the burst or puncture test and other requirements of table a; or alternatively Boxes must comply with the burst or puncture test and other requirements of table a; or alternatively, must comply with the edge crush and other requirements of table B (note 4).

Types of print

There are basically two methods used to print corrugated fiberboard containers:

  1. Post Printed

When the liner is printed after the corrugated fiberboard has been formed, the process is known as post printing. Post printing is the most widely used printing methods for corrugated fiberboard containers because it is economical and may be used for small press runs. However, postprinting produces graphics with less detail and is usually limited to one or two colors.

  1. Preprinted

 High quality, full-color graphics may be obtained by preprinting the linerboard before it is attached to the corrugated paperboard. Whereas the cost is about 15 percent more than standard two color containers, the eye-catching quality of the graphics makes it very useful for many situations.

Description: yasser3

Pre-Prenting machine

The visual quality of the package influences the perception of the product because the buyer’s first impression is the outside of the package. Produce managers especially like high quality graphics that they can use in super market floor displays.

Preprinted cartons are usually reserved for the introduction of new products or new brands. Market research has shown that exporters may benefit from sophisticated graphics. The increased cost usually does not justify use for mature products in a stable market, but this may change, as the cost of these containers becomes more competitive.

Standardization of Packaging

 

Produce package standardization is interpreted differently by different groups. The wide variety of package sizes and material combinations is result of the market responding to demands from many different segments of the produce industry. For example, many of the large- volume buyers of fresh produce are those most concerned with the environment.

They demand less packaging and the use of more recyclable and biodegradable materials yet would also like to have many different sizes of packages for convenience. Packers want to limit the variety of packages they must carry in stock, yet they have driven the trend toward preprinted, individualized containers. Shippers and trucking companies want to standardize sizes so the packages may be better palletized and handled.

Selecting the right container for fresh produce is seldom a matter of personal choice for the packer. For each commodity, the market has unofficial, but nevertheless rigid standards for packaging; therefore it is very risky to use a nonstandard package.

Packaging technology and disposal regulations are constantly changing. When choosing a package for fresh fruits and vegetables, packers must consult the market, and in some markets, standard packages may be required law.

Description: wodpalRecommended container sizes are shown below. These containers are part of the MUM program (Modularization, Utilization and Metrication) advocated by USDA. They can all be stacked in a variety of patterns, depending upon their size, yet still from a stable load on a single pallet of 1000x1200 mm.

Photo Source North Carolina cooperative Extension Service

Outside dimensions

Number per layer

Pallet surface area utilized

MM

Percentage

600X500

4

100

500X400

6

100

600X400

5

100

500X333

7

97

600X333

6

99

500X300

8

100

475X250

10

99

400X300

10

100

433X333

8

96

400X250

12

100

Table no. () shows the 3 of different grape containers dimensions arrangement on a standard pallet (1000x1200 x150mm) and the number of boxes per pallet and the arrangement inside 20& 40 ft reefer containers.

 

Attached tables show the arrangement of a variety of MUM containers on a standard pallet (1000x1200 mm). Using MUM containers can save space during transport and storage, since pallet utilization is close to 100%.

Pallets position for different transportation modes

In a railcar:, pallets are loaded with 48-inch (1.20 m) sides facing the ends of the car, and 40 inches (1.00 m) sides the car sidewalls and centerline. The 50 –foot (about 12.5-m) car will carry a total of 28 pallets.

In the road trailer or reefer container: With 40 ft (about 11.59 m), which is limited by law as to width, can hold 20 pallets in a nominal 40 ft size. One row is located in 11 pallet positions along one side, with the 48-inch (1.20m) facing the ends of the reefer or trailer. The other side is loaded in nine positions, with the 40-inch (1.00 m) sides facing the trailer or reefer ends. (See under diagram)


       Pallet position plan for refrigerated truck and 40 ft reefer container

Testing

Containers or corrugated boxes materials, such as Linerboard and medium and corrugated board and then the finished corrugated box should be tested.

  • Linerboard and medium: The more tests performed on linerboard used in the manufacture of corrugated board  are: bursting strength, basis weight, puncture, stiffness, tear, tensile, moisture, clipper, water absorbency, pH, compression resistance, and water drop.
  • Corrugated board: A variety of tests are performed on corrugated board before it is made into the finished container, including bursting strength, edge compression, flat crush, pin adhesion and puncture.
  • Finished corrugated box: Tests performed on finished container include the puncture, compression resistance, impact resistance, stiffness, and drop tests. Of these, the compression test is the most common.

Test Procedures

Note 1

  1. Burst Test:

1-    Test to determine compliance with the bursting test requirements of table A must be conducted in accordance with technical association of pulp and paper industry (TAPPI).

2-    A minimum of six bursts must be made, three from each side of the board, and only one burst test will be permitted to fall below the specified minimum value. Board failing to pass the foregoing test will be accepted if in a retest consisting of 24 burst, 12 from each side of the board, not more than four burst tests fall below the specified minimum value.

  1. Puncture test:
  2. Tests to determine compliance with the puncture test requirements of table A must be conducted in accordance with (TAPPI).
  3. A minimum of four puncture tests must be made and only one puncture test will be permitted to fall below the specified minimum value.
  4. Edge crush test:
  5. Tests to determine compliance with the edge crush requirements of table B must be conducted in accordance with (TAPPI).
  6.  A minimum of six tests must be made and only one test is permitted to fall below the specified minimum value. That one test cannot fall below the specified minimum value by more than 10%. Board failing to pass the foregoing will be accepted if in a retest consisting of 24 test, not more than four tests fall below the specified minimum value, and none of those tests fall below the specified minimum value by more than 10%.

Note3– Size extension formula: If weight of box and contents is less than the maximum weight shown in table A and B the maximum outside dimensions for the box may be increased half the percentage that the actual weight is less than the maximum weight allowed by the table.

Note –4- Numbered packages alternate requirements:

Where numbered package descriptions specify boxes, containers, trays and component parts therefore to be made of corrugated fiberboard having a minimum bursting or puncture test as shown in column A below. Boxes, containers, trays and component parts therefore may be made of corrugated fiberboard having a minimum edge crush test as shown in column B below. These alternate provisions will exempt basis weight requirements.

Corrugated Fiberboard

Single wall

Double wall

Triple wall

Maximum weight of box and contents pounds)

Maximum dimensions (length, width and depth added (note 4) (pounds)

Max. Combined weight of facing (pounds/1000 sq. ft.

Min. bursting test pounds per sq. in. (note1)

Max. Combined weight of facing including center facing (pounds/1000 sq. ft.

Min. bursting test pounds per sq. in. (note1)

Min. combined weight of facing including center facing (pounds per 1000 sq. ft.

Min. puncture test of board (inch oz. Per inch of tear

20

--

--

65

80

120

140

160

180

40

50

60

75

85

--

110

--

120

120

52

66

75

84

111

180

--

--

--

---

125

150

175

200

250

350

---

---

---

---

---

---

180

222

270

---

---

---

---

---

--

350

400

500

600

---

----

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

246

-----

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

---

100

                                            Table A                                     Table B

 

Max. weight of box and contents (lb.)

Max. outside dimensions, length, width and depth  added (in.) note 3

Min. bursting test, single wall, double wall or solid fiberboard (lb. per sq. in) note 1

Min. combined weight of facing, including center facing of doublewall and triplewall board

Min. edge crush test (ECT) (lss. Per in. width) note 1 ©

Single wall corrugated fiberboard boxes

20

35

50

65

80

95

120

40

50

60

75

85

95

105

125

150

175

200

250

275

350

52

66

75

84

111

138

180

23

26

29

32

40

44

55

Double wall corrugated fiberboard boxes

80

100

120

140

160

180

85

95

105

110

115

120

200

275

350

400

500

600

92

110

126

180

222

270

42

48

51

61

71

82

Triple wall corrugated fiberboard boxes

240

260

280

300

110

115

120

125

700

900

1100

1300

168

222

264

360

67

80

90

112

A

Minimum bursting test single wall and doublewall board (lbs. per. in.)

B

Minimum edge crust test (ECT)

Lbs. Per inch width)

Single Wall 125

Single Wall 150

Single Wall 175

Single Wall 200

Single Wall 250

Single Wall 275

Single Wall 350

Single Wall 200

Single Wall 275

Single Wall 350

Single Wall 400

Single Wall 500

Single Wall 600

23

26

29

32

40

44

55

42

48

51

61

71

82

The table below provided examples of some types of typical mechanical damage and their effect on the carton and focuses also on the important of the tests conducted.

Type of damage

Result

Important factors

Impact damage through dropping

Splitting of seams, opening of flaps causing loss of containment function.

Distortion of shape reducing stacking ability.

Bursting strength

Closure method

Compression damage through high stacking

Distortion of shape, seam splitting causing loss of containment and splitting of inner cartons, bags, and foil wrappings

Box compression strength

Vibration

Become compressed and lose their cushioning qualities. Contents more prone to impact damage.

Box compression strength

Certificate of box manufacture

Description: Image4Corrugated fiberboard manufactures print box certificates on the bottom of containers to certify certain strength characteristics and limitations. There are two types of certification.

The first certifies the minimum combined weight of both the inner and outer facing and that the corrugated fiberboard material is of a minimum bursting strength. The second certifies minimum edge crush test (ETC) strength.

Edge crush strength is a much better predictor of stacking strength than is bursting strength. For this reason, users of corrugated fiberboard containers should insist on ECT certification to compare the stackability of various containers.

Both certificates give a maximum size limit for the container (Sum of length, width, and height) and the maximum gross weight of the contents.

Certificate must be of the following form, size (3-inch or 7.62 cm diameter, plus or minus ¼ inch or 0.63 cm).

Strapping and Cornerboards materials

Many shippers and receivers prefer to handle unit loads of produce pallets rather than handling individual shipping containers, it is also became a standard required from the receivers and sea reefer containers loading, in addition with some air shipment containers.

The switch to unit loads has reduced handling, causes less damage to the containers and produces inside, allow faster loading/ unloading of transportation reefer containers or refrigerated vehicle, and reduce the cost of labor handlers.

Using fiberboard, plastic or wooden containers with vertical interlocking tabs improve the unit load’s stability. Containers must have holes for ventilation, which align when squarely on top of one anther.

Metal strap should be added to secure the load and tighten the cornerboard. Cornerboards made from fiberboard, plastic or metal help to provide for a stable unit load.

Pilling over the pallet and strapping:

1-    Correct fitting of straps and flanges angle.

2-    Pilling: the pallet should offer the best support base possible at the end of the boxes.

3-    Pilling height: it is recommended that it should not surpass as height of 2.20 m, including the pallet measurements.

4-    Flanges angles: it is always convenient to place the flange angles in the corners for the greater stability of the pallet. There are eight in total, fitted 4 vertically in each pallet angle and 4 fitted horizontally on the pallet over surfaces. The flange angles should have a minimum size of 50x50x4 mm section, water proof, and their length should be equal to the total height and wide of the pallet and will be festinated to the pallet by means of the strap.

5-    Figures bellows shows the importance of the strapping, palletizing and the proper boxes selection according to the goods weight, ambient environments.

Description: klm2Description: klm1

Description: packing

Description: strap

Macroperforated shaped polyethylene &                         Plastic, cardboard edge corner and straps

Polypropylene bags with a re-pull, in different

models and sizes suitable for green beans

and grape

Photo Sources: Ronzulli co.

Horticulture Packaging History in Egypt

  • How we started

A general survey was conducted by ATUT and project experts’ one year ago. They visited most Egyptian corrugated carton manufactures. They selected 2 carton manufactures to cooperate with the project. Their selection did not consider the manufacture’s facilities as a first concern, but rather the decision makers or chairman’s behavior and attitude of understanding the future prospects and future market demands.

We studied two manufactures, one of them have a preprint facility and the other one has post print only. We planed to produce grape, strawberry, melon and mango boxes. All exporters were importing their cartons from abroad especially for the sea shipment use.

We decided to start with strawberry carton. Several samples are provided to the manufactures and we put a dead line for the submission the local samples.

The manufactures became oriented with the perishable corps behavior inside the package in addition to different crop criteria. Follow up continues to see the sequent changes in packaging design.

Several samples are submitted to us from the two companies and with exporter agreement, we chose the samples that were compatible with the fruit , reasonably priced and met export demands.

Item

Description

Strawberry carton

Single open top tray for 2 kg

Internal Dimensions

295x395x77 mm

Outer Liner

Coated liner 180 gm

Middle Liner

Floating 140 gm

Inner Liner

High quality Kraft 200gm

Weight/ sq. Mt.

580 gm

Printing

Filixo Graphics

Over Printing

Laquer of water reprint

 Glue

Water resistance, must stand 36 hrs thinking in the water

Compression Load

260 kg

Moisture absorption

6%

Edge Crush test

123 kg/mm (average)

The same sequences of events followed while selecting corrugated boxes for mango and green beans. The table below shows the specification for the green beans box

  • Green Beans box

Item

Description

Green Beans Carton

2 Pieces for 4 kg

Application

Sea shipment

Internal Dimensions

300x400x160 mm

Bottom

Single B flute150 gm

Outer Liner

Kraft 150 gm

Middle Liner

Flute 127 gm

Inner Liner

Treated Kraft 175 gm

Weight/ sq. Mt.

530 gm

Top

Single E flute

Outer Liner

Clay coated liner 160 gm

Middle Liner

127 gm

Inside

Kraft liner 150 gm

Over Printing

Coated water reprint

 Glue

Treated for Water resistance.

Printing

Filixo  till 6 colors

Compression Load for the 2 pieces

460 kg

Moisture absorption

Max. 7%

Edge Crush test

123 kg/mm (average)

  • Melon Boxes

The following table shows the specification for the melon boxes that are produced locally, with 5-kg capacity and inner dimensions 293x385x150 mm

Type of paper

Crush test N/sq. cm.

Tensile Strength (kg/cm)

Moisture Content

Outer liner

White top 200gm

12.1

28.5

5%

Flute (E)

Romanian 125gm

5.9

19

1.4%

Middle Linear

K. Swd. 200gm

 

28.5

9.5%

Flute (B)

Finland 140gm

7

21

1.9%

Inner Liner

K. Swd. 200gm

10

28.5

9.5%

Test no.

Compression test kg/box

Edge Crush kg/mm

Moisture content

Water proof

1

984.5

118.9

3.9%

OK

2

1013

105.3

4.1%

3

990.5

126.1

5.2%

4

1006

136.7

4.4%

5

1000

129.1

4.5%

Average

900

123

4.4%

  • Grape boxes

Further for the grape boxes is considered one of the critical crop boxes because of potential exposure to excessive condition.

The trail test is began with several samples that were imported from abroad (Chili and Mexico).

 

Egyptian grapes were export in 3 different boxes having dimensions of 30x50x13cm, 40x50x13cm and 40x60x9 cm. We chose the 30x50x13 cm to make the trail.  

Three samples were offered from the manufacture and 3 pallets (9 carton per layer and 15 rows) were built for sea shipment.  We used green beans to fill

Description: Image6

The boxes instead of grape (it was not Egyptian grape season) with 5 packs x 1 kg per each box. (We used also some rocks).

The pallet (as shown in fig no. ) stored inside the pre-cooling under the following condition - 90% RH and 5- 6 Celsius for 15 hrs. Then moved to the cold storage along 12 days (same as transit time to UK and Holland.

We observed moisture absorption damage in the first 3 layers on the 2 pallet.

One pallet withstood this condition. The information was disseminated to grape exporter and they started placing their orders with the local manufacture.

During this trail some shipping lines, carton manufacture and exporters joined us.

Description: Image2

Description: Image1

                        Fig () built pallet                                         Edge crush and collapse in first 3 rows

The lab tests and the carton specification are shown for the grape carton boxes in the following tables.

5-kg grape carton box with dimensions 40x60x9 cm

Type of paper

Crush test N/sq. cm.

Tensile Strength (kg/cm)

Moisture Content

Outer liner

White top 200gm

12.1

28.5

5%

Flute (E)

Romanian 125gm

5.9

19

1.4%

Middle Linear

K. Swd. 200gm

10

28.5

9.5%

Flute (B)

Finland 140gm

7

21

1.9%

Inner Liner

K. Swd. 200gm

10

28.5

9.5%

Test no.

Compression test kg/box

Edge Crush kg/mm

Moisture content

Water proof

1

984.5

118.9

3.9%

OK

 

2

1013

105.3

4.1%

 

3

990.5

126.1

5.2%

4

1006

136.7

4.4%

5

1000

129.1

4.5%

Average

900

123

4.4%

Description: yasser1

Description: yasser4

Definition:

ASTM: (American Society for Testing and Materials), a voluntary consensus organization formed for the development of standards on characteristics and performance of materials, products, systems and services.

Box: A rigid container having closed faces and completely enclosing the containers.

Container: Any type of box, carton, bag, or bin used to form a package of produce.

Corrugated Fiberboard: A structure formed from one or more paperboard facing and one more corrugated member used in making corrugated fiberboard boxes and products.

Carton: A container of various construction, but usually made corrugated fiberboard or possibly plastic, that generally contains fifty pounds (22 kg) or less of fresh produce.

Flute or corrugation: One of the wave shapes formed in the corrugation medium.

Glued: Firm gluing is indicated when mutilation of the surface fibers accompanies separation of joined areas.

Liner: A creased fiberboard sheet inserted in a container and covering all sidewalls.

Ply: Any of the several layers of solid fiberboard.

Water resistance: A board, to be water resistant, shall be sizes (treated with water repellant materials) so as to have a degree of resistance to damage or deterioration by water.

Inner Packaging

Description: complete punnet

Punnet specification

Description: STRAW

How you can choose your punnet:

  • Large top and bottom window surface
    1. Allows largest label for merchandising this size package.
    2. Strong, crystal clear material protects fruit and shows off your product better.
  • Reliable design.
    1. Stable stacking surface for retail.
    2. Secure locks to keep the package closed in transit.
    3. Unique inverted lid to keep fruit secure.
  • Reliable automation:
    1. Easy denesting, filling and closing.
    2. Unique design to ensure minimal rework on production line.
  • Reliable production
    1. Ribbing design to be easy on your fruit no bruising.
    2. Superior forced air-cooling performance.
  • Reliable dimensions
    1. Sized to be efficient
    2. Maximum cube per pallet.
    3. Fits in either single layer or double stack or other type of stacking.
  • Ecological
    1. Totally recyclable materials (PET, PP, PS) which protect the environment.

Punnets sources

There are many sources for purchasing and producing the punnets. The major sources are USA there are many manufactures. Also there are manufactures in Canada, Spain, Italy and Belgium, but we can say that the leaders are Spanish manufactures.

Egyptian exporters are mainly cooperated with Italian manufacture specifically Infia company and with their dealer in Egypt.

Punnet Manufactures

Tenneco Packaging. (USA and Canada).

Sambrailo Packaging (USA)

Monte Packaging companies. (USA)

Ultra Pac (USA).

Eastman Link (USA).

Dolphin Packaging (UK).

Infia Company (Italy)

Autobar (Spain).

Pactive Advanced Packaging Solution (Canada)

Punnets dimensions

Each product has a certain punnets weight and shapes that should packed on it as per the supermarkets requested and the suitability for the product.

From this view it is easy to observe how many times the punnets weight and punnets with lid shapes are changed in different season and in the same season also but in different regions.

Each exporter should be oriented with each markets demand prior to the season starts.

Consequently the punnets manufacture will change the punnets Dai every time and indeed the manufacture contribute in changing the punnets shape with the supermarket, before exporters contacting.

What we will show explain under is the punnets shape and weight is not means that this as a standard but it could only considered as the existing or the current supermarkets announced.

Further we will express and give a guide from the major punnets manufactures that our exporters used. Which are Infia from Italy and Autobar from Spain

Description: straw

Specification/Co.

Infia

Autobar

Weight

250 gram

250 gram

1. Type

TR80 (punnet) side ventilation

TCF (lid)

F250/T(punnet)

T-250/T (lid)

Lid height

20 or 25mm

15 or 20mm

Number of punnet inside 40ft container

400,400 punnet & 400,400 for lid

380,000 punnet & 380,000 lid

Material

PET

PET

2. Type (one layer)

F250 (punnet)

TCF 500 (lid)

F500-F/38 (punnet)

T-500-F/15 (lid)

Lid height

15mm

15mm

Number of punnet inside 40ft container

210,000 (punnet)) & 210,000 (lid)

194,600 punnet &194,600 lid

Material

PET

PET

  • Grape

Specification/Co.

Infia

Autobar

Weight

500 grame

500 gram

Type

F500 (punnet)

FC500 (Lid)

F-500/F(punnet)

T-500/F-15 (15mm) lid or

T-500/F(25mm) lid

Container height

55 or 60 mm

60 mm

Lid height

22 mm

15 or 25 mm

Material

PET

PET or PP

Number of punnet inside 40ft container

210,000 (punnet)) & 210,000 (Lid)

200,000 (punnet) & 200,000 (Lid)

Reference

  • Dr. Ahmed Magdy Khakil, 1999, El Alamien container lab tests.
  • Gordan  L. Robertson, 1992, Food packaging principal & practice.
  • Edmund A. Leonard, 1996, Packaging specification, purchasing and quality control.
  • Fiber box association, 1991, fiber box handbook supplement, minimum requirements for corrugated boxes.
  • North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, 1996, Packaging requirements for fresh fruits and vegetables.
  • Mercantila Publishers, 1989, Guide to food transport, Maersk
  • Davis, 1995.
  • Matt Tokar & Yasser Essam, 2000, Ronco /Atut Punnet report.


Table No.

Carton dimensions

40 ft Reefer Container

High Cube reefer Container

30X 40X 13 CM

No. of Pallets = 20 (9+11).

10 (base) x 15 (Row)= 150 cartons/pallet.

No. of Pallets = 20 (9+11).

10 (base) x 18 (Row)= 180 cartons/pallet.

30X 50X 11.5 CM

No. of Pallets = 20 (9+11).

8 (base) x 17 (Row)= 136 cartons/pallet.

No. of Pallets = 20 (9+11).

8 (base) x 20 (Row)= 160 cartons/pallet.

40X60 X9    CM

No. of Pallets = 20 (9+11).

5 (base) x 20 (Row)= 100 cartons/pallet.

No. of Pallets = 20 (9+11).

5 (base) x 26 (Row)= 130 cartons/pallet.

N.B: Wood pallet high = 15 CM

         Reefer container dimensions: LXWX H

         40FT Reefer containers: 11.579 X 2.27 X 2.197 M

         High Cube: 11.593x 2.27x 2.53

         Carton weight 500 to 800 grams (average)